Human adenovirus 3 (HAdV-3) is a non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Adenoviridae family, specifically the Mastadenovirus genus. There are more than 50 distinct serotypes of human adenoviruses (HAdVs), which are classified into seven species (A to G) based on their genetic and biological properties.
HAdV-3 is a member of species B and is associated with various respiratory infections, predominantly in children. Infections caused by HAdV-3 can range from mild to severe and may include symptoms such as fever, sore throat, cough, and runny nose. In some cases, HAdV-3 infection can lead to more severe conditions like bronchitis, pneumonia, or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
Transmission of HAdV-3 primarily occurs through respiratory droplets, contact with contaminated surfaces, or close personal contact with infected individuals. The virus can be shed in respiratory secretions, urine, and feces, and it is known for its ability to survive on surfaces for extended periods. Outbreaks of HAdV-3 infection can occur in settings where people live in close quarters, such as schools, military barracks, and hospitals.
There is currently no specific antiviral treatment for HAdV-3 infection, and management typically involves supportive care to alleviate symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, hospitalization and supplemental oxygen therapy may be required.
Prevention of HAdV-3 infection involves general hygienic measures, such as regular handwashing, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and disinfecting contaminated surfaces. Although there are no commercially available vaccines for HAdV-3, researchers are investigating potential vaccine candidates to prevent adenovirus-associated respiratory infections in high-risk populations.